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See also List of VCE & VDI products List of VCE & VDI products References External links vce simulator vce exam simulator vce simulator vce simulator & Fafite, 2009). Although recent evidence is conflicting, it appears that PRs may also play a role in inhibiting the innate immune response, e.g., through acting as a cytokine (IL-1) antagonist (MacAskill et al., 2010) or through induction of regulatory T-cells (Husmann et al., 2006). Thus, PRs are not only multifunctional molecules that enable plants to sense changes in light and temperature but they are also involved in plant immune responses. A better understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of how PRs regulate plant immunity is currently a major goal in the plant sciences. In addition to hormones and PRs, two other plant hormones, jasmonates and ethylene, have also been implicated in the regulation of plant defense (Hammond-Kosack and Jones, 2003; Whistler and Jones, 2003). Upon attack, jasmonates are produced through the conversion of linolenic acid to jasmonic acid, which is catalyzed by jasmonate zim-domain (JAZ) proteins (Valent et al., 2000; Ko et al., 2002; Tsuda et al., 2006). JAZs are negative regulators of jasmonate signaling, acting by recruiting a cytosolic E3 ubiquitin ligase, RING-U-B (Tsukiyama-Kohara et al., 2004; Yasuda et al., 2008). In plants, there are thirteen JAZ genes that have been characterized to date (Tsuda et al., 2007; Kratzer et al., 2008). The ethylene signal transduction pathway is also involved in plant defense responses. Ethylene is produced from methionine by the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACC synthase), which is the first committed step in ethylene synthesis (Whistler and Jones, 2003). Ethylene is perceived by receptors in the plasma membrane (Wang et al., 2002). Ethylene is perceived in the ER membrane by a group of proteins called ETRs (efflux proteins), which export ethylene from the cell (Wang et al., 2002). Ethylene signaling is




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